@article {
author = {Rafighi, Mohammadreza and Akbary, Mehry and Fakharnia, Mohammad Hassan and Vahidnia, Mohammad Hassan},
title = {Comparison of the Impacts of Coniferous and Deciduous Trees on
Land Surface Temperature Changes
(Case Study of Shahid Chamran Park in Karaj and Chitgar Park in Tehran)},
journal = {Geography and Planning},
volume = {26},
number = {82},
pages = {95-112},
year = {2023},
publisher = {University of Tabriz},
issn = {2008-8078},
eissn = {2717-3534},
doi = {10.22034/gp.2022.47183.2878},
abstract = {IntroductionAlthough the air layer adjacent to the earth's surface - the boundary layer - is a small fraction of the entire atmosphere, the processes that take place on a small scale are very important to human life and activites. Among living organisms, plants and especially trees have undeniable effects on surface temperature and especially in urban environments have several balancing effects. This research was carried out using Landsat 8 satellite imagery and with Arc GIS software to compare the surface temperature of the earth in two areas with vegetation of coniferous trees (Chitgar Park) and broadleaf trees (Shahid Chamran Park). The values of Radiance, Reflectance, Brightness Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Proportion of Vegetation and Emissivity and then Land Surface Temperature were calculated and generated. A total of 1700 points were harvested from Chitgar Park and 800 points from Chamran Park. In SPSS software, Leven test (F) statistics was used to prove the homogeneity of variances of the samples and parametric tests (T with two independent samples) were used to prove the significant difference between the surface temperature of the earth in the mentioned areas. According to Leven test, the value was Sig = 0.409 (P_value), which confirms the homogeneity and equality of variance of the studied samples. Also, in the T test, the value was Sig = 0.000, which is less than 0.05, which means a significant difference. Therefore, the difference between the surface temperature data of the two parks was proved. Also, by comparing the graphs of LST values in the two groups, we found that Chitgar Park has a higher surface temperature than Chamran Park. In the current dilemma of the century, global warming, knowing these local realities and providing logical solutions to reduce surface temperature at the regional and regional scales as a whole can effectively solve the problem of global warming on a global scale.Data and Method The data used in this study is a Landsat 8 satellite imagery with the acronym: 8 (LC08_L1TP_165035_20190706) is LANDSAT.Retrieved July 6, 2019 from the USGS website.Production of component images for Shahid Chamran Parks in Karaj and Chitgar in Tehran: The surface temperature image was generated step by step using the Landsat 8 satellite image using the Raster Calculator command in the ArcMap software environment. First, relevant and effective indicators in calculating the surface temperature of the earth, Top of atmospheric radiance, reflectance, Brightness Temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, proportion of vegetation, emission coefficient (emissivity), calculation and their images are produced and then the land surface temperature, It was calculated and produced according to the following mathematical formulas.Step 1: Produce a spectral radius image from above the atmosphere To obtain the brightness temperature, the image must first be converted to radius. Therefore, the gray DN values of bands 10 and 11 of the Landsat 8 satellite TIRS sensor should be converted to high atmospheric radius separately with the help of the MTL file, which is an extension of the Landsat image (Tables 1, 2 and 3).Formula (1) :Calculate the radius of the upper atmosphere TOA (Lλ) = ML * Qcal + ALLλ = (Watts / (m2 * srad * μm)) The radius of the atmosphere in terms ofML = Multi-band radius_ 10 bandStep 2: Produce an image of the light temperature above the atmosphere After converting the DN values of bands 10 and 11 to high atmospheric radii, we converted these two corrected bands to Brightness Temperature.BT = (K2 / (ln (K1 / L) + 1)) - 273.15 Formula (2): Calculation of Brightness Temperature BT = Atmospheric Brightness Temperature (° C)Lλ = (Watts / (m2 * srad * μm)) Radius of the atmosphere in terms ofBT = (1321.0789 / Ln ((774.8853 / “% TOA%”) + 1)) - 273.15K1 = K1 Constant Band (No.), K2 = K2 Constant Band (No.)Step 3: Produce vegetation index image formula (3): normalized difference vegetation index image was generated usingNDVI = (Band 5 - Band 4) / (Band 5 + Band 4)Step 4: Produce a proportion of vegetation imageThe proportion of vegetation image was generated using normalized difference vegetation index.formulas (4):Calculate the proportion of vegetation PV = (NDVI - NDVImin / NDVImax- NDVImin) 2PV = Square (("NDVI" - 0.216901) / (0.632267 - 0.216901))Step 5: Produce the Emissivity image Emissivity image was generated using formula (5)ε = 0.004 * PV + 0.986 Formula (5): Calculate the Emissivity coefficientStep 6: Produce an image of the earth's surface temperature Land surface temperature image was generated using formula (6).Formula (6) :Calculate ground land surface temperatureLST = (BT / (1 + (0.00115 * BT / 1.4388) * Ln (e)))Results and Discussion Text Comparison of surface temperature phenomena (LST) According to Table (6), the highest land surface temperature with 44.42 ° C belongs to Chitgar Park, which is covered with coniferous trees, and the lowest in Shahid Chamran Park, in Karaj with 28.09 ° C with broadleaf trees. Has been. According to Tables (7) and (8), the lowest temperature of Chamran Park is 28.09 ° C and the highest is 36.51 ° C and the lowest temperature of Chitgar Park is 34.74 ° C and the highest is 44.42 ° C. . According to Figure (22), Chitgar Park with an average surface temperature of 38.92 ° C is warmer than Shahid Chamran Park with an average land surface temperature of 31.39 ° C. Figure (23) shows a red graphic showing the surface temperature of the ground in Chitgar Park with coniferous species (pine) and the blue diagram shows the surface temperature of Shahid Chamran Park in Karaj with broadleaf species. It is clear that the temperature is significantly higher in Chitgarh Park. The range of temperature fluctuations in Shahid Chamran Park is between 36.51 - 28.09 ° C and in Chitgar Park is between 42 / 44-74 / 34 which is exactly shown in the diagram. The fact that the red chart is higher than the blue chart explains this correctly. This is due to the lower density of trees in Chitgarh Park as well as the predominant tree species (needle-shaped) due to less shading and more input radiation. T test with two independent samples: This test, which is a parametric test, was used to prove a significant difference between the earth's surface temperature in areas with coniferous and deciduous trees. Leven test (F) was used to prove the homogeneity of sample variances and t-test with two independent samples was used to examine the homogeneity of the means of the two statistical populations, which resulted in the following results. As can be seen in Table (12), the value = 0.409 Sig, which is the same value as P_value, is greater than 0.05, ie the variance of the communities is homogeneous and equal. 0.05 is less, which means that the difference is significant. Due to religion, the difference between the land surface temperature data of Shahid Chamran and Chitgar parks is proved.ConclusionAccording to all the findings, Chitgar Park has a higher land surface temperature than Chamran Park, which is due to the lower density of trees and also the type of dominant tree species (needle-shaped). Coniferous species that take up less space than broadleaf species and have less shading. They also make it possible for the sun to collide with the ground due to the fact that the leaves of the adjacent trees do not meet, and this is an important factor in raising the surface temperature in the mentioned park. Species compatible with the climate of the study areas are broadleaf species because they have more leaves shading and care than coniferous species and ultimately cause more climate adjustment. The difference in temperature between the two parks confirms this fact. In the current dilemma of the century, global warming, knowing these local realities and providing logical solutions to reduce surface temperature at the regional and regional scales as a whole can effectively solve the problem of global warming on a global scale. },
keywords = {broadleaf",coniferous",land surface temperature",",Shahid Chamran Park ",. ",Chitgar Park"},
title_fa = {مقایسه ی تاثیر درختان سوزنی برگ و پهن برگ در تغییرات دمای سطح زمین (مطالعه ی موردی پارک شهید چمران کرج و پارک چیتگر تهران)},
abstract_fa = {گرچه لایه هوای مجاور سطح زمین -لایه مرزی- کسر کوچکی از کل جو زمین است، با این حال فرآیندهایی که در مقیاس کوچک در آن روی می دهد برای حیات و فعالیت انسان بسیار مهم است. در بین موجودات زنده، گیاهان و علی الخصوص درختان تأثیرات انکارناپذیری بر دمای سطحی داشته و به ویژه در محیط های شهری دارای اثرات متعادل کنندة متعددی میباشند. در بزرگترین چالش بشر در قرن حاضر یعنی گرمایش جهانی؛ اطلاع از واقعیتهای محلی و ارائه راه حلهای منطقهای برای کاهش دمای سطحی می تواند به حل معضل گرمایش جهانی کمک مؤثری نماید. این تحقیق با استفاده ازتصویر ماهواره ای لندست 8 و با نرم افزار آرک جی آی اس جهت مقایسه دمای سطحی زمین در دو منطقه با پوشش گیاهی درختان سوزنی برگ (پارک چیتگر) و درختان پهن برگ (پارک شهید چمران) انجام پذیرفت. مقادیر تابندگی، بازتابندگی، دمای روشنایی، شاخص نرمال پوشش گیاهی، نسبت سبزینه، گسیلمندی و سپس دمای سطح زمین محاسبه و تولید گردید. در مجموع 1700 نقطه از پارک چیتگر و 800 نقطه از پارک چمران برداشت شد. در نرم افزار SPSS از آماره آزمون لون (F) جهت اثبات همگنی وریانس های نمونه ها و از آزمـون های پارامتـریک (T با دو نمونه مستقل) جهت اثبات وجود تفاوت معنادار بین دمای سطحی زمین درمناطق مذکور استفاده شد. طبق آزمون لـون مقدار =0.409 Sig (P_value) شد،که مؤید همگنی و برابری واریانس نمونههای مورد مطالعه است. همچنین در آزمون T مقدار =0.000 Sig شد که از 0.05 کمتر می باشد، این یعنی تفاوت معنادار است که موید وجود تفاوت معنادار بین دادههای دمای سطحی دو پارک است. همچنین مقایسه نمودار های مقادیر LST در دو گروه نشان داد که پارک چیتگر نسبت به پارک چمران بین 6 تا 8 درجه سانتیگراد دارای میزان دمای سطحی بالاتری دارد.},
keywords_fa = {درختان پهن برگ",درختان سوزنی برگ",دمای سطح زمین",پارک شهید چمران کرج",",پارک چیتگر تهران"},
url = {https://geoplanning.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_14856.html},
eprint = {https://geoplanning.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_14856_510e015373bbbe90530226a5b3074df3.pdf}
}