نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.
2 دانشیار دانشگاه اصفهان
وجود امکانات و زیرساختهای شهری از جمله عوامل مؤثر در ایجاد شهر شاد است؛ چراکه بدون داشتن فضاهایی برای گذران اوقات فراغت، فضاهای عمومی که مردم در آن حضور یابند و ارتباطات افزایش یابد و بدون وجود امکانات و خدمات فرهنگی، آموزشی، ورزشی، درمانی و ... بهعنوان نیازهای اولیة شهروندان، نمیتوان به دنبال ایجاد شهر شاد بود. گردشگری نیز یکی از مهمترین حوزههای زندگی است که باعث ایجاد شادی و در نتیجه رضایت کلی زندگی میشود. بنابراین در این پژوهش تلاش براین است تا با مطالعة کاربریهای گردشگری، وضعیت شهر شیراز از نظر این شاخصها به تفکیک مناطق بهعنوان شاخصهای مؤثر در ایجاد شهر شاد بررسی شود. دادههای پژوهش، براساس دادههای سالنامه آماری شهر شیراز، نقشههای موجود و بهروزرسانی آنها براساس اطلاعات مکانی موجود در نرمافزارهای گوگلارث، نشان، بلد، و برداشت میدانی؛ جمعآوری شده است.
روش تحقیق پژوهش از نظر هدف، کاربردی و از نظر روش انجام پژوهش، توصیفی – تحلیلی است. روش تحلیل دادهها تاکسونومی عددی اصلاح شده، واسپاس و ماباک است. نرمافزارهای مورد استفاده برای پردازش و تحلیل دادهها شامل نرمافزارهای WASPAS، Taxonomy Solver، Excel و Arc GIS است.
براساس تحلیل تاکسونومی صورت گرفته برمبنای کل شاخصهای مورد بررسی، مشخص شد که هیچ یک از مناطق شهر شیراز جزء سطح برخوردار قرار نمیگیرد. مناطق 8 و 1 نسبتاً برخوردار هستند. مناطق 2، 3، 6 و 10 در سطح سوم یعنی نسبتاً محروم قرار دارند. مناطق 4، 5، 7، 9 و 11 در پایینترین سطح و جزو مناطق محروم از نظر شاخصهای توسعة شهری مرتبط با گردشگری محسوب میشوند.
بهطور کلی هر چه از مرکز شهر دور میشویم، مناطق محرومتر میشوند. مناطق پیرامون منطقة 8 در رتبههای بالاتر، سپس به ترتیب مناطق شمالی، جنوبی در رتبههای پایینتر قرار میگیرند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Spatial Analysis of Tourism and Urban Development Indicators with Happy City Approach(Case study: Shiraz Metropolitan)
- sara mirzaei 1
- Ali Zanghiabadi 2
1 PhD Student, Faculty of Geographical Sciences & Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Isfahan University
Existence of urban facilities and infrastructures is one of the effective factors in creating a happy city because without leisure spaces, public spaces where people are present and communication is increased and without cultural, educational, health, Sports facilities and services, as the basic needs of the citizens, a happy city cannot be created. Tourism is also one of the most important areas of life that creates happiness and therefore overall life satisfaction. Therefore, in this study, an attempt is made to study the urban development indices related to tourism, to determine the status of Shiraz city in terms of these indices as effective indicators in creating a happy city.
Shiraz Urban development has taken a linear form and the location of urban land use has been largely inappropriate and out of science.
Shiraz, as the international tourism counter, the third shrine of Ahl al-Bayt, and as the third Iranian tourist city, needs dynamic, happy and vital citizens.
Happy citizens have a better interaction with tourists and pilgrims, thereby increasing their satisfaction and attracting more tourists.
Since the most important step in development planning as well as the realization of a happy city is to reduce imbalances and inequality, it will be possible to diagnosis the direction and type of development by determining the degree of development of each of the urban zones of Shiraz.
Research questions are:
1. How is the development status of Shiraz zones in terms of the indicators that are effective in achieving the happy city?
2. What are the Priority variables affecting the balance of urban space?A happy city is a city with a high quality of life that is the result of meeting the needs of inhabitants in the best possible way and tourism is one of the most important areas of life that creates happiness and thus overall life satisfaction.
In the new geography, justice and injustice cannot be confined to measuring economic inequalities, because space is a fundamental dimension of human society, and justice and injustice appear in space. Environmental justice is equality of people by their needs, abilities, efforts and impact on the production of society, so it is treated equally with all residents wherever they live. In urban planning, the physical-spatial distribution of urban elements and services is balanced and commensurate with the needs of citizens in each neighborhood and urban area. Harvey has identified need as the most important criterion of justice. The basic needs that are nowadays called essential services in urban planning and management can be the basis for measuring spatial justice.
In order to achieve balance and equilibrium in each city, studies are needed to identify the current status of the city and to resolve failures, deprivation, and equitable distribution of facilities and services. This can be a step towards making the city happy.
One of the most important theories that relates place to happiness is the need / livability theory. This theory considers happiness as a result of objective living conditions and meeting needs, and states that improved objective conditions such as urban and physical or economic conditions will lead to greater happiness. Many cities are not livable, because of city problems such as poverty and crime; but even successful cities are not livable in many ways. There is also lack of nature and recreational spaces in cities. Finally, most people cannot afford good housing, especially in the largest cities. Others live somewhere on the fringes and commute long hours. Commuting is the worst thing that reduces happiness. Large cities are less livable than smaller ones. More precisely, cities are less acceptable to most people; the rich can afford a good life in a city. Therefore, access to urban amenities and services is an important factor in the livability of cities and the happiness of citizens. In some cases, when basic needs are met, more money does not bring more happiness. Likewise, spending is a poor way to buy much more happiness. So how can lasting happiness be achieved? We need to buy experiences (e.g., holidays, recreation centers), not things (e.g., a luxury home or car). According to this theory, leisure spaces for people and tourists should be created and city facilities and infrastructures should be balanced at city level, especially in big cities.
The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. The Modified Numerical Taxonomy, WASPAS & MABAK methods were used for statistical analysis. Softwars used for data analysis included WASPAS, Taxonomy Solver, Excel and Arc GIS. In this study, urban land uses and services have been studied.
Results & Discussion
Based on the taxonomy analysis based on all the indices studied, it was found that none of the Shiraz zones were included in the developed level. Zones 8 & 1 are relatively developed. Zones 2,
3, 6 and 10 are in the third level, i.e. relatively deprived. Zones 4, 5, 7, 9 and 11 are in the lowest level and are among the deprived areas in terms of Indicators of urban development in related to tourism.
In general, whether we move away from the city center, the zones become deprived. The zones around zone 8 are in the higher ranks, Then, the northern and southern zones are in the lower ranks, respectively.
The results showed that the Shiraz is not in a good condition in terms of physical characteristics of urban development and tourism infrastructure. Distributive justice for different land uses has not been regarded and most of them are concentrated in some urban zones. In fact, the lack of proper distribution of urban land uses and their concentration in some areas, especially in the central part of the city, has caused the zones to be in poor condition for all indicators and therefore none of the zones are in good condition.
- Spatial Analysis
- Spatial Justice
- Urban Tourism
- Happy City
Outside of the City, First published by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN.