عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, pre-risk awareness has become an integral part of the national development management and planning system in many countries (Civiacumar et al., 2005). Agriculture is inherently sensitive to climatic conditions. The minimum temperature, which has been identified as the most vital determining factor in the distribution of plant species on the planet, can be both a limiting factor and a factor in the spread and species distribution (Rodrigo, 2000: 155). Therefore, in this study, we examined the changes in minimum temperatures in the statistical period (1980-2010) and predicted these changes in the 2050s (2065-2046) in the Northwest of the country using the LARS-WG microscale method and model output. Atmospheric pairings of HadCM3 and MPEH5 were addressed. The prediction of minimum temperature variations to determine the extent of its future changes and considering the necessary measures to minimize the adverse effects of climate change on agricultural products were of great importance. In this regard, general atmospheric circulation models (GCMs) are designed that can simulate climatic parameters.
DATA AND METHODS
In the present study, the output data of two HadCM3 and MPEH5 general circulation models based on two scenarios A2 and B1 were analyzed by LARS-WG statistical method in 21 synoptic stations located in the Northwest of the country. The results were monthly and periodic on the base period (1980-1999) and the 2050s (2046-2065), thereby the minimum temperature was evaluated and analyzed. In assessing the LARS-WG model, the observational and simulation error data were evaluated using MSE, RMSE, MAE and R2, and the model was evaluated for the appropriate region. The results showed that the minimum temperature in the future period will increase compared to the base period in the study area. This increase in air temperature at the study area is based on the HadCM3 and MPEH5 models, on average, 1.9 and 1.7 degrees Celsius to 2065 horizons compared to the base period. The north-eastern part of the northwestern region of Iran will have higher temperatures than the semi-southern regions. In fact, the cooler regions of the high latitudes will face more incremental changes in the amount of minimum temperatures. The results and achievements of this research are important for long-term plans for adaptive measures in the management of fruit gardens, agricultural products and water resources management. In order to calibrate and ensure the accuracy of the LARS-WG microscale model, the model was first implemented for the basic statistical period (1980-2010); then the minimum temperature output and its standard deviation were compared with the observational data of the studied stations, which indicated a small difference between the observed and simulated values and also deviated from their criteria.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of evaluation of observational and simulated data by LARS-WG microscale model using RMSE, MSE and MAE error measurement indices for the studied stations indicate that there is a significant difference between the simulated values and the values of the observed observations. There is no critical 0.05 significance levels, and Pearson correlation values between simulated and real data are acceptable at the significance level of 0.01. The obtained results show that the accuracy of the model varies in different stations. In general, the results of error measurement indices indicate that the LARS-WG model is of good accuracy for micro-scaling the parameters under study. In order to better represent and ensure the accuracy of the prediction as well as to investigate the uncertainties in the studied models, the simulated values were compared and observations were made on a long-term average during the base period in the studied stations using comparative graphs. As can be seen, the observed and generated values in the base period at all stations are very close to each other and the LARS-WG model has been successful in simulating the studied parameter. After evaluating the LARS-WG model and ensuring its suitability, the data predicted by the model for two scenarios A2 and B1 using HadCM3 and MPEH5 models and were examined on a monthly and long-term basis. The study of the status of minimum temperature changes of the studied stations in the future period (2065-2056) shows that the minimum temperature is based on both scenarios and in all months and stations compared to the period, the base has increased. Due to the large number of study stations, only stations located in provincial centers of this study are listed.
Cold and frost are one of the most significant climatic hazards on fruit trees. This type of climate risk affects different parts every year, especially the cold regions of the northwest of the country. Studies show that in recent years, the rate of economic damage to fruit trees in this region has increased, so in this study, the outlook for changes in minimum temperatures in this region using the LARS-WG statistical microscale model and output two HadCM3 global model and MPEH5 were introduced in the 2050s (2065-2046). For accuracy and precision of the models, error measurement indices and coefficients of determination and correlation were used. The results showed that the LARS-WG model has a good ability to simulate the studied variables in the study area. The results of long-term prediction of the studied models show that the minimum temperature values will increase in all study stations, which is based on HadCM3 and MPEH5 models on average. In the 2050s, and it will be 1.9 and 1.7 respectively, compared to the base period. The results of the studies of Kayo et al. (2016), Sharma et al. (2017), Khalil Aghdam et al. (2012), Qaderzadeh (2015), Sobhani et al. (2015) and Khalili et al. (2015) were confirmed. In general, based on the studied scenarios and models, the minimum temperatures are expected to increase in the study area in the future. By increasing it, the yield of some crops that need cold during the growing and productive period would decrease. It can also reduce snowfall, followed by frost on crops and lack of water in dry seasons. Therefore, due to the fact that following the climate changes, the conditions of the agricultural climatology are also changing, it is necessary for the relevant officials and planners in the agricultural sectors to adopt the necessary strategies to reduce the consequences and adapt to the new climate.