گسترش شهرنشینی و به دنبال آن، مشکلات خاص زندگی شهری، بیش از پیش توجه به راهبردها و چارههای سودمند برای بهینهسازی زندگی شهروندان را ضروری کرده است. در چند دهه اخیر، با مطرح شدن مفاهیم و رویکردهای دموکراتیک، الگوهای جدید حاکمیتی شکل یافتند. یکی از این اشکال جدید، جنبش حکمروایی خوب شهری بوده است. این الگو به عنوان فرایند مشارکتی تعریف میشود که با مشارکت شهروندان و تغییر نقش و کاکردهای حاکمیت محلی همراه است. در این راستا، برنامه NBN با اصطلاح «همسایهها محیط پیرامون همسایگی خود را میسازند» ، به عنوان یکی از موفقترین راه در زمینه مدیریت شهری و حکمروایی خوب شهری در طی ده سال گذشته در شهر روچستر نیویورک میباشد. در این برنامه ، همه شهروندان سعی در ساماندهی محیط زندگی اطراف خود میباشند. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، ارزیابی عوامل موثر بر اجرای حکمروایی شهری مشارکتی( برنامه NBN) در منطقه 2 کلانشهر تبریز میباشد. روش پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی بوده و جامعه آماری با توجه به فرمول کوکران و جمعیت منطقه 2 کلانشهر تبریز، 382 نفر میباشد. برای گردآوری اطلاعات از ابزار پرسشنامه و برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده-های حاصله از پرسشنامه از نرم افزار لیزرل و SPSS استفاده شده است. با توجه به نتایج تجزیه و تحلیل دادهها، در محیط برنامه لیزرل مدل از برازش مطلوبی برخوردار بوده و در بین شاخصها، شاخص« توافق جمعی» به عنوان شاخص اول محاسبه گردید. این بدین معنی است که منافع مختلف جامعه به سمت اجماعی گسترده که بهترین و بیشترین منفعت را برای تمام اجماع و همه شهروندان در پی داشته باشد، هدایت شود. هم چنین در نرم افزار SPSS با توجه به آزمون تی تک نمونهای ، عوامل موثر در حکمروایی شهری مشارکتی(برنامه NBN) در منطقه مذکور، از وضعیت خوبی برخوردار نمیباشد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the factors influencing the implementation of participatory urban governance (NBN program) in District 2 of Tabriz metropolitan
The expansion of urbanization and the problems resulting from urban life have made it increasingly necessary to pay attention to useful strategies and solutions to optimize the lives of citizens. With the introduction of democratic concepts and approaches over the last decades, new patterns of governance have emerged. Good urban governance movement has been one of these new forms. This model is defined as a participatory process that is associated with citizen participation and changing the roles and functions of local government. In this regard, the NBN program, entitled "Neighbors Building Neighborhoods," has been one of the most successful ways of urban management and good governance in the past ten years in Rochester, New York. In this program, all citizens try to organize their living environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the implementation of participatory urban governance (NBN program) in District 2 of Tabriz metropolitan.
Methods: The method of present study is descriptive-analytical. To collect the required data, library resources (for theoretical foundations) and questionnaire (for scientific research) were used. It should be noted that the statistical population of this study was calculated to be 382 people, according to the Cochran's formula and the population of District 2 of Tabriz metropolitan. Also, the used questionnaire included 19 five-option questions with a closed answer and its items are measured based on the Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire was obtained using the face validity and its reliability was obtained at 0.826 using Cronbach's alpha method, indicating the desirable reliability of the questionnaire.Then, the data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed using LISREL software and one-sample t-test in SPSS software, and the indicators influencing the implementation of participatory urban governance (NBN program) were evaluated and prioritized. LISREL software was used to estimate and test structural equation models and to examine and analyze linear relationships between latent variables and observed variables. This program uses correlations and covariance between observed variables to estimate the values of factor loads, variances, and errors of latent variables. In the quantitative stage of study, the relationship between latent variables was examined using the structural equation method and a model was presented using LISREL software. In the field method, as stated, the questionnaire tool was defined and used for each latent variable and observed variables. To analyze the data through the structural equation model, the data obtained from the questionnaires were entered into the SPSS statistical software and were encoded. The data encoded in the LISREL program were retrieved and analyzed.
Results: Based on the results of LISREL software and the t-value, indicating the priority of indicators in LISREL software, the collective agreement indicator with a value of 10.72 was ranked first. In fact, when there are different opinions and ideas in a society, there will be different actors, so it is better to guide the city management and different interests and preferences in the society towards a broad consensus that considers the best and most benefit for groups. In other words, the city is the arena of different groups and interests and they are sometimes in conflict with each other. Collective agreement means moderation and creating an agreement of different interests. Transparency indicator with a T-value of 7.28 was ranked second. It means that lack of transparency and secrecy in urban affairs increases the possibility of corruption in decision-making. However, transparency prevents its spread. Citizen participation indicator, which means power to influence citizens in decision-making and involving them in power with the T-Value value of 6.1, was ranked third. Justice indicator, which means creating suitable opportunities for all citizens to improve their welfare status, the effort for fair allocation of resources and participation of the deprived people in expressing their opinions and decisions with the T-value of 5.18, was ranked fourth. Evaluating the status of indicators in SPSS software and their significance level indicated that significance level of all indicators is less than 0.05. It means that the mean indicators differ from the theoretical mean of 3, and since the values of the two upper bound and lower bound columns are negative, it can be stated that the mean of the indicators is lower than the theoretical mean of 3. Hence, with 95% confidence interval and significance level of less than 0.05, it can be stated that District 2 of Tabriz metropolitan is not in a good position to implement participatory urban governance (NBN program).
Conclusion: One of the most successful models in the area of urban management is the "good urban governance" model, which is a participatory urban management system. In this model, three institutions of civil society, private sector and government participate in all relevant decisions. This approach in urban management is based on the citizen-oriented and fair development is to influence all forces having interest and power in the management of urban affairs and to meet all the needs of these groups. In fact, it can be stated without the active participation of citizens, urban governance will not be realized and urban management will remain in a static framework with a one-sided and dominant power in making decision on city issues. Thus, citizen participation is the driving force of urban management. In this regard, the NBN program is one of the most creative and effective approaches to contemporary urban management and governance, which has been used in Rochester, New York for about two decades. In this program, people participate in all relevant decisions together with the government. This approach, called "neighbors building neighborhoods", can be one of the most serious steps in decentralizing centralized management and urban "top-down planning" and rural areas and movement towards decentralized participatory governance and "bottom-up planning."
The present study was an attempt to evaluate the factors influencing the implementation of participatory urban governance (NBN program). The results of data analysis in the LISREL program environment show that the model has a good fit. Among the indicators, according to their T-Values, the "collective agreement" indicator was ranked first, and the indicators of transparency, citizenship participation and justice were ranked second, third, and fourth, respectively. Also, based on the results of data analysis in SPSS and one-sample t-test and significance level, the mean of indicators with the theoretical mean and the values of upper and lower bounds, which are negative in all indicators, it can be stated that the factors affecting the implementation of participatory urban governance (NBN program) are in an unfavorable situation.