نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی دانشگاه پیام نور
مقاله به بحث درباره نقش صنایع روستایی بر توسعه اقتصادی و اشتغال زایی جامعه روستایی شهرستان سنندج در راستای برنامه ششم توسعه کشور میپردازد. توسعه پایدار روستایی فرآیندی چند بعدی است که موضوع آن بر بهبود و ارتقاء کیفیت زندگی اقشار آسیب پذیر جامعه روستایی تاکید دارد. راهبردهای متفاوت اقتصادی جهت ارتقاء سطح کیفیت زندگی روستائیان وجود دارد، یکی ازآنها راهبرد توسعه صنایع روستایی است که از این طریق نه تنها بستر اشتغال زایی فراهم میگردد بلکه به عنوان منبع درامدی برای روستائیان محسوب میگردد. پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی و میدانی است، جامعه آماری شامل9آبادی شهرستان سنندج که 115خانوار به فعالیت صنایع روستایی اشتغال دارند. پرسشنامهای در ابعاد اقتصادی و اجتماعی با 42متغیر تکمیل و از طریق نرم افزار Spss21 مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. برای تجزیهوتحلیل، از روش میانگین،انحراف معیار و ضریب تغییرات استفاده شد. برای تبیین ضریب تاثیر متغیرها، شاخصها را به سه گروه تاثیر زیاد،متوسط و کم تقسیم بندی و براساس روش میانگین متغیرها رتبه بندی شدند. یافتهها نشان داد بین توسعه صنایع روستایی و توسعه اقتصادی و اشتغال زایی خانوارهای روستایی رابطه معنیداری وجود دارد. به طوری که توسعه صنایع روستایی موجب افزایش سطح درآمد، اشتغال زایی و کاهش سطح بیکاری در روستاهای مورد نظر شده است. بیشترین تاثیر توسعه صنایع روستایی مربوط به شاخص اقتصادی با ضریب تاثیر زیاد01/54 درشاخص اجتماعی ضریب تاثیرزیاد برابر با 12/45 درصد بوده است. بنابراین راهبرد توسعه صنایع روستایی ضمن توسعه اقتصاد محلی از طریق اشتغال زایی و درآمد زایی، میتواند به عنوان یک راهبرد توسعهای برای تحرک اقتصاد روستا تلقی گردد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Economic and social relations of rural industries (handicrafts and household jobs) on rural village Items: Sanandaj Village Towns
- rahmat bahrami
geography,university payam noor
Development texts show that there are several ways to achieve development. Much of the village's economy is dependent on agriculture, and due to low land and labor productivity, agriculture alone is not the ultimate solution to the problem of unemployment or job creation. The high growth rate of the rural population and the wave of migration have doubled the problems of unemployment and job creation. Statistical surveys in the country show that the most important factor in the migration of villagers to cities is economic poverty. Numerous programs have been developed in Iran in recent years to overcome developmental bottlenecks, and the results show that, with few exceptions, they have failed in many areas and failed to achieve rural development goals. Therefore, economic development experts believe that strengthening economic foundations by focusing on activating the production cycle in rural areas and creating employment and entrepreneurship can pave the way out of the crisis of rural development. Today, the focus of economic development policies is on expanding small rural businesses (rural industries) as a way to achieve rural development. The drafting of such a law is a strategy to counter the rising unemployment rate and the migration process of villagers on the one hand, and the sustainability of the rural population through job creation in various dimensions of development, including the development of rural industries. Such ideas in the rural area could potentially be the driving force and accelerator in the rural economy. The article deals with the impact of rural industries on economic development and job creation in the local economy of Sanandaj villages. The importance of rural industries in Sanandaj is that on the one hand, rural industries reflect the cultural heritage of the village, and on the other hand, rural industries can empower rural households to increase their production capacity, productivity, welfare and quality of life. Be helpful. Research Questions: What is the development of rural industries and economic development and job creation in the villages of the study area? The development of rural industries in the study area has had the greatest impact on the factor of economic and social development?
The research is applied in terms of purpose, descriptive-analytical in terms of method. Theoretical studies have been compiled through documentary methods, field data through questionnaires. The interview method was also used to analyze and complete the data. The number of target villages, including 9 villages in the central part and Klaterzan of Sanandaj city, which has been engaged in the work of rural industries, has been studied. The statistical population of the study included 815 households with a population of 26620 people in 9 villages of Sanandaj city, which were distributed in Klatarzan and Markazi districts (Statistics Center of Iran, 2016). The sample size included all 115 families employed in rural industries. The type of activity of rural industries includes carpet weaving, kilim weaving, tailoring, weaving, carpentry, carpentry, etc. In order to investigate the effects of rural industry development in two economic and social components, a total of 10 indicators and 43 variables were measured using a 5-choice Likert scale questionnaire based on mean method, standard deviation and change coefficient. To ensure the design of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha was used and the reliability coefficient was 82 /. It has been obtained that the validity of the questionnaire has been confirmed based on the views of experts related to the village.
Results and discussion
Data were analyzed to explain the economic and social dimensions with the approach of job creation in Sanandaj villages from the average method, percentage calculation of options, method of coefficient of change and standard deviation. The inferential results of analyzing the economic and social dimensions of the development of local industries on rural development showed that 24 variables were studied in economic dimensions and 19 variables in social dimensions. The results showed that the economic average was 3.35. In terms of impact factor, it was divided into three groups. In economic dimensions, 9 variables with high impact factor, the second group with average impact coefficient of 11 variables and the third group with 4 variables, which were recognized as weak impact factor. In the social dimensions, 11 variables were evaluated with an average of 3.4. Of these, 6 variables with high impact factor, the second group with 8 variables with medium effect coefficient and the third group with 5 variables showed the least impact.
Establishing rural industries as a productive economic sector in such a situation where the country is in economic sanctions is a good opportunity to develop a resilient economy and an important step in adjusting income between urban and rural areas, increasing income and social welfare and attracting surplus rural forces. . Research in line with Article 27 of the Sixth Development Plan of the country in the field of economic development and job creation in rural areas has examined the role of rural industries in economic and social development with the approach of job creation in rural areas of Sanandaj city. Rural industries can have a significant impact on job creation, income generation for low-income rural people, and reduced immigration. Therefore, the development of rural industries is one of the best options for economic development and rural employment. To identify the impact factor of data in social and economic dimensions, they were divided into three groups: high, medium and low, and were ranked according to the average data method. The purpose of this method is twofold: first, through high results, clear strengths and through low coefficients, in fact, the challenging points express the development of rural industries. The results of the research strengths showed that the influential variables in rural industries, such as reducing the level of poverty, increasing the level of participation, reducing the level of unemployment and reducing migration have had the greatest impact. On the other hand, the challenges and weaknesses of rural industry development can be solved in variables such as lack of access to educational institutions in updating and prosperity of rural industries, low level of skills and their non-emergence, lack of workshops and lack of social security insurance. It is considered major.
- rural industries
- economic development
- job creation