نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری اقلیم شناسی، گروه جغرافیا، واحد مرند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مرند، ایران
2 استاد گروه اقلیم، دانشکده برنامه ریزی و علوم محیطی – دانشگاه تبریز، دانشکده برنامه ریزی محیطی
3 استاد گروه ژئومورفولوژی، دانشگاه تبریز، دانشکده برنامه ریزی محیطی
4 استاد گروه سنجش از دور و GIS، دانشگاه تبریز، دانشکده برنامه ریزی و علوم محیطی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the effect of drought on water resources of countries plain is high important at optimal management of water resources in the agriculture and natural resources part. The phenomenon of climate change, affects the amount of water existence in aquifer by changing amount of precipitation. The occurrence of consecutive climate droughts affects ground water resources. Knowing and awareness of the effect of time between two phenomenon of drought and hydrological drought, can help managers and planners of the water sector. Over the years, the effect of drought on ground water resources less attention has been paid. In order to understand the state of groundwater resources and optimum management, it is necessary to carry out a thorough study of groundwater fluctuations. In this research, Marand plain is the purpose of this study. Marand Plain is poor in rainfall and has a rainfall of 450 mm / year and at least 150 mm / year which varies in the plains and mountainous regions. In this research, we have tried to investigate the effect of atmospheric drops, including rainfall, on ground water level in the Marand watershed.
The Marand plain with 45 °, 15 to 50 minutes east longitude and 37 ° 7 'to 38 ° 56' north latitude and with an area of 42.517 square kilometer is one of the vast plains in the northwest of East Azarbaijan province. Which is selected as the study area. In this study, in order to study the trend of ground water level changes in the Marand Plain, the static surface data of 23 piezometric wells was used during the 2000 to 2016. First, a common statistical period was chosen to analyze the data series (2000 to 2016). Then in order to reconstruct the statistical defects, the correlation between stations and piezometric wells and linear regression method was used. The IDW method was used to calculate the average rainfall of the plain. Finally, the standard water level index (SWI) and the SPI index for the studied basin were calculated and analyzed.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of climate drought on the fell of groundwater level in the Marand plain using SPI and SWI indices. Meteorological drought conditions in the Marand plain were calculated using the SPI index on a 12-month time scale. The results and drought accuracy of the rain gauge stations in the studied basin showed that during the study period, the first period of drought since 2005 started gradually with decreasing atmospheric precipitation and continued until 2007 and after a period of humidity short-term, again, a short period of drought from 2008 to 2009 has been on the ruling area. The SWI index was used to survey the status of groundwater level. This indicator also showed that in terms of time and place, the drought based on this index corresponded to the drought caused by the SPI index.
Using the SPI index, the drought trend was studied in the region. The results showed that during the study period (2000-2016) three drought periods from winter 2005 to beginning of 2009, summer of 2011 to the end of 2012 and winter of 2015 to summer of 2016 occurred. Drought affected areas included the east and center of the study area and the west of the region witnessed more atmospheric precipitation. The SWI index was used to survey the status of groundwater level. The index showed that in terms of time and place, the drought based on this index corresponded to the drought caused by the SPI index. Data analysis showed that these two indices with a time interval of one season had a correlation of 1%. This means that the hydrological drought after a season has a direct impact on the surface of the water. In general, we can conclude from the results of this study that the trend of ground water surface changes has been consistent with the drought and weathering changes in the region. Therefore, the fall of the ground water level of Marand plain can be largely influenced by weathered droughts.