دسترسی مناسب به خدمات در مناطق روستایی از جمله ضرورتهای توسعه روستایی است. بررسی این ضرورت در مناطق کوهستانی با توجه به آن که رفاه ساکنان آن به دلیل محدودیتهای دسترسی، وابستگی بسیار زیادی به آن دارد از مهمترین اقدامات بوده است. تحقیق حاضر به تبیین نقش عوامل فضایی بر استقرار الگوی بهینه مراکز خدمات روستایی در شهرستان طارم پرداخت. عوامل فضایی در سه عامل، انسانی، فیزیکی و طبیعی و در 12 زیرمعیار تعیین شد. اهمیت زیرمعیارها در پرسشنامه تخصصی و در تحلیل شبکه(ANP) به دست آمد. پس از کنترل نرخ سازگاری میان عاملها و زیرمعیارها، نقشه پهنهبندی زیرمعیارها بر وزن آنها اعمال و پهنههای کاملاً مناسب تعیین شد. در پایان نیز پس از کمیسازی زیرمعیارها، برای هر دهستان سه نقطه روستایی بر حسب نمره ویکور، به عنوان نواحی کاملاً مناسب برای استقرار مراکز خدمات روستایی تعیین شد. به ترتیب عاملهای انسانی، طبیعی و فیزیکی مهمترین عوامل در استقرار الگوی خدماترسانی بودند. 6 % درصد از مساحت منطقه مورد مطالعه، به دلیل قابلیت خدماترسانی دارای پهنه کاملاً مطلوب است. در این پهنه 20 نقطه روستایی قرار دارند. نقاط روستایی منتخب(برای هر دهستان سه روستا) از جمعیت و نرخ رشد مثبت و اشتغال بالایی برخوردار هستند. این نواحی در مسیرهای ارتباطی مناسب، مناطق پست و هموار قرار دارند. فاصله تمام نقاط روستایی به این نواحی مناسب بوده و همچنین به لحاظ پایداری خدمات در فاصله مناسبی از خط گسل و رودخانه قرار دارند. همچنین تعداد خدمات بیشتری نیز دارند که به لحاظ توجیه اقتصادی و هزینههای عمرانی برای توسعه خدمات مناسب هستند. بدینترتیب با تعیین نواحی مناسب برای مراکز خدمات روستایی، میتوان بسترهای لازم برای رشد خدمات در این مناطق را فراهم و با دسترسی مناسب تمام نواحی روستایی مورد مطالعه به این خدمات، موجب توسعه روستایی شد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Explain the role of spatial factors in establishing the optimal model of rural service centers, Case of rural areas of Tarom city
Inequality in access to and distribution of services is common in most rural and urban areas of developing countries. This leads to spatial displacement and mass migration of rural groups to cities in the hope of having a variety of facilities and more suitable living facilities. Given this knowledge, the study argues that rural settlements, like urban settlements, should have some socio-economic functions in addition to residential function. These functions are in the form of distribution of services, the desired access to which will guarantee the stability and stability of the rural system. In this regard, proponents of service development theory also believe that improving access to services and facilities is one of the basic requirements for achieving rural development. The study of this necessity in mountainous areas has been one of the most important measures due to the fact that the welfare of its inhabitants is highly dependent on it due to access restrictions. Tarom city is located in a mountainous area and a large part of its population and rural areas are located in mountainous areas. Many of its rural areas are sparsely populated and scattered due to their mountainous nature, which has also had an impact on the establishment of the service delivery model. Therefore, preliminary studies in the field of research indicate challenges in access to services in rural areas. Needs attention to effective factors to determine the appropriate model of service delivery in rural areas of the city.
Data and Method
Establishment of activities and establishment of rural service centers in suitable places will achieve high efficiency and economic justification of services and ensure their sustainability in the future. The basic step to achieve this is to determine effective and appropriate priorities for it, which should be in accordance with the conditions of the study area. First, the effective factors on the access of rural residents to rural service centers were determined based on the researcher's field knowledge of the study area, experts' opinions and similar research in three factors and 12 sub-criteria. Then, after determining the degree of importance of the criteria and sub-criteria, the weight of each of them was determined on the zoning map and the appropriate areas were determined. Finally, in order to determine the suitable rural areas for the establishment of rural service centers, the conditions of each rural area were ranked according to the sub-criteria and the villages with priority were ranked in the Vikor model.
Results and Discussion
According to the research findings, human, physical and natural factors are the most important factors for the establishment of rural service centers. Population density and concentration is also the most important sub-criterion. Sub-criterion of population density in rural areas, because most of the population is scattered and sparsely populated, has a high priority to determine the most suitable village for service centers and therefore more population will have access to it. According to another study, only 6% of The area of the study area is quite desirable due to its serviceability. There are 20 rural points in this area, each of which has suitable conditions for providing services to the villages in their area of influence in the countryside. According to Vicor score of 20 rural points, 3 rural points for each village were determined as the most suitable central village for rural services. Selected rural areas have a positive population and growth rate and high employment. These areas are located in suitable communication routes in each village and the distance of all rural areas to these rural centers is appropriate. In terms of service stability, these areas are at a good distance from the fault line (earthquake risk) and waterway lines (flood risk) and since these areas are located in low and flat areas, they also have more services in terms of Economic justification and construction costs are appropriate for the development of services.
The need to pay attention to the rural areas of the country and provide appropriate and sufficient services and facilities to activate rural units, either due to the need to expand production activities (agricultural sector) in these areas or due to proper organization of housing and population stabilization in these areas due to widespread migration , Is a serious and inevitable thing. In connection with this issue, one of the first steps is to recognize the capacities and capabilities of rural areas and to properly regulate and organize the provision of services in order to rationally use these capabilities, which must be firmly and steadily taken. In the study, rural areas that were suitable in terms of factors and conditions were identified. These areas have a good justification for establishing rural service centers. There fore, by determining the appropriate areas and areas for rural service centers, it is possible to provide the necessary conditions for the growth of services in these areas and with proper access to all rural areas studied to these services, rural development can be achieved.