عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
In today’s world, the growing trend of urban population and urbanization process on the one hand, and the need to maintain land located in the suburbs and valuable natural area and the need to save the land on the other hand, has put high-rise construction and dense urban development on the agenda of the urban management. The provision of housing and the issue of population housing have always been the most significant factor in the nature and objective of such planning, and may have marginalized considerations and observance of various physical, social, cultural and environmental criteria. Because of factors such as the reconstruction of the ruins of the eight-year war, the process of migration from rural areas and other cities of West Azerbaijan province to this city, at a time, the city of Urmia first began to develop horizontally through numerous changes in urban uses, after that time, due to huge costs, the existence of natural barriers from a geographical point of view, the inability of the local executive body in providing infrastructure networks, the tendency to develop high-rise buildings within the urban management setting and consequently among the private sector becamemore powerful. The process of dense construction of Urmia began more or less in the late 1990s, and since then, the city of Urmia has been the bedrock for the construction of high-rise residential buildings in high and relatively high areas; and during this period, natural resources and barren lands underwent land use changes and dense development; consequently, the development of high buildings, apart from social and cultural inadequacies, has imposed congestion and traffic problems in the alleys, as well as the inconsistency, heterogeneity and ugliness on the city.
Data and methods
This research is of cognitive type in terms of purpose, and is of evaluation type in terms of method; it is of cross-sectional in terms of time; and, is quantitative in terms of data type. Primary data were analyzed in SPSS software, specifically through using one-sample t-test and Friedman test. The statistical population of the study includes citizens living in district 1 of Urmia Municipality, and based on Cochran's formula, the sample size has been calculated and determined to be 384 people. In order to collect data, a questionnaire was prepared based on simple random sampling method in the number of the sample size, and it was distributed in the study area. And its face and content validity has been estimated based on the purpose of the research through consulting with professors and experts, and its reliability was estimated by Cronbach's alpha test to measure the internal consistency of items, and was found to be 0.81.
Results and Discussion
Nowadays, the need for a high-rise construction strategy is more apparent due to the increasing population growth and land constraints. High-rise buildings, as the result of technological advancement, can increase pollution due to the negative environmental consequences associated with high population and building densities, if not properly controlled and supervised. In this study, according to one -sample t-test, all four dimensions include a moderate to high status (social: 30.4; economic: 28.7; environmental: 26.8; and physical: 45.6). According to Friedman test, the reason for the moderate to high social status is the proportionality of the security situation and the low rate of conflict, but the sense of belonging and life suitability in the units is not very satisfactory. The above-average economic status is due to the profitability in construction and the existence of seasonal jobs, which is associated with a service-oriented economy in strict 1 of the city of Urmia. Regarding the environmental dimension, the relatively good health status has taken an average to high score, and at the same time the quality of waste collection in strict 1 of Urmia is appropriate. But noise pollution is on the rise in the strict. In terms of the physical dimension, the proper quality of the water, gas and telephone network has given it a moderate to high status. But the physical dimension of district 1 has been problematic for high-rise buildings in cases such as neighborhood , emergency stairs, building strength, impact on street congestion due to shortage of parking areas.
According to the criteria studied and what is highlighted in the principles of high-rise construction, more density of the city leads to the lower transportation, while the case study in this research is one of the busiest parts of the city in terms of traffic, daily and night movement of personal vehicles. Despite the possibility of better and more use of urban lands, district 1, which has a higher slope and is at higher altitude comparing to the other areas of the city, does not have much power and possibility to get natural light, and has increased shading. It has inevitably failed to achieve urban sustainability. It can be acknowledged that despite the expansion of high-rise buildings and the vertical growth and density of the city, the location allocation of these units has not been done properly; and in the field of construction, the obvious principles such as height proportion, facade proportion, neighborhood, distribution of facilities and services, etc. have not been observed, and this issue has distorted the urban landscape. In addition, the lack of infrastructure such as multi-storey parking areas and the lack of parking in the buildings have contributed to the congestion of the streets. And all of theses issues are due to not following a distinct and standard pattern, and the process of transformation of the district has been mostly subjective in terms of high-rise construction.