در آستانه ورود به هزاره سوم، تحولات بسیار سریعی در جوامع بشری صورت گرفت که جدا از منافع، آسیب هایی جدی نیز به همراه داشته است. اسناد و شواهد موجود نشان میدهد که موتور اصلی این تحولات انقلاب صنعتی و تاثیرات ناشی از آن بوده است. در این بین یکی از رویکردهای اساسی جهت مقابله با نابسامانیها در دهههای اخیر، رویکرد توسعه پایدار است؛ یعنی توسعهای که از نظر زمین غیر مخرب، مناسب، اقتصادی و از نظر اجتماعی قابل پذیرش باشد، در واقع توسعه پایدار زمانی حاصل میشود که تمامی ابعاد آن یعنی: اقتصادی، اجتماعی، زیست محیطی و کالبدی پایدار ایجاد شود. بر این اساس هدف از این تحقیق درگام نخست اولویت بندی شاخص و معیارهای موثر در پایداری محیط مسکونی و سکونتگاههای انسانی بوده است؛ در گام بعدی با استفاده از این شاخصها و معیارها رتبه بندی مناطق شهر تبریز انجام شده است. فرایند تحقیق بدین گونه است که ابتدا نظر کارشناسان از طریق پرسشنامه جمع آوری شده سپس با استفاده از تحلیل فرایند سلسله مراتبی فازی وزن شاخص و معیار مشخص گردید، در نهایت با استفاده ازروش آنتروپی وزن مناطق حاصل شده است. براین اساس بعدکالبدی با وزن 544/0 اولویت نخست را در پایدار شهر تبریز بدست آورده است؛ بعد اجتماعی، اقتصادی و زیست محیطی به ترتیب با وزن 245/0، 172/0 و038/0 در اولویت بعدی قرار دارند. در این تحقیق همچنین شاخصهای و معیار موثر روی مناطق ورتبه بندی آنها انجام شده است که به ترتیب در بعد اقتصادی منطقه4 باامتیاز 14/6، دربعداجتماعی منطقه4 با امتیاز79/9، دربعد زیست محیطی منطقه 6 با امتیاز 23/11 ودر بعدکالبدی منطقه 2 با امتیاز 61/23 رتبههای نخست را در این بررسی بدست آورده اند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
An Analysis on Prioritizing Effective indicators on Development of Sustainable Residential Environment Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Entropy Model (Case Study: Tabriz City)
On the verge of entering the third millennium, very fast evolutions have been occurred in human societies which apart from profits accompanied with serious damages too. Available documents and evidence indicated that the main driver for these evolutions has been industrial revolution and its resulted effects as fallowing to apply machine in human societies and using electronic devices resulted from this revolution we were witness of accelerating resource consumption from one hand and on the other hand with development of medical science and applying technology in manufacturing medical devices, deaths have been decreased and subsequently population has increased. With high rate of fertility and immigration from rural to city areas, especially cities of developing countries in recent decades have been expanded dramatically.
At civil levels, with economic, social and cultural evolution of 19th and 20th centuries affected from modernism is caused genesis of metropolises and generated fundamental changes in the their structure and spatial-physical organization. Looking at this situation, a new approach for sustainable development has been proposed at international level that controlling development and determining restrictions are among its objectives align with human society welfare and controlling damages to the environment. Given to the course of the evolutions in the theoretical and practical domain of the cities under the influence of new paradigm, meeting needs is a requisite for life environment in addition personal welfare and high quality of life are required and necessary too. Considering to sustainable development theory, some emphasize confidently that environment, society and economical subjects should be considered for the unpredictable future of the environment.
Data and Method
The current study is descriptive- analytical which has been conducted using effective indicators in sustainability of residential environment using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and entropy Model. Available methods and models for selection and evaluation are categorized in two general groups: 1- flat models 2- hierarchical models. One of the models in this regard is fuzzy analytic hierarchy model. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy approach is an expanded AHP approach.
Table No. (1): Expert weighting of indicators and criteria
In this study various data from different aspects of the sustainable (environmental, economic, social and physical) development has been collected. In scientific studies one of the well-known methods that is widely used to solve multi criteria decision making problems is fuzzy AHP. Accordingly, if fuzzy values were triangular numbers which are shown as (mi, li, ui) then it can be calculated using below equation.
Entropy in data theory is a measure of unreliability which is specified with probability distribution (p < sub>i) and measuring this unreliability () by Shanon has been stated as below in which the greater dispersion in the values of an indicator, the more important that indicator is.
Results and Discussion
Due to the importance of sustainability in development and sustainable development in recent years, so many investigations have been done in various domains and in dimensions such as economical, environmental and physical ones. According to the results obtained from this study, physical criterion which includes (construct, accessibility and vicinity) is the main criterion considered by experts with numerical weight of 0.544. Social, economic and environmental dimensions are respectively at next level of priority. For the same reason physical dimension is emphasized as the main influential factor in Tabriz sustainable development in this study. At the next step dimensions of sustainable development were analyzed and the role that each dimension plays on civil areas was studied and below conclusions were obtained:
Of 66 indices for analysing sustainable development dimensions in Tabriz city, 7 indices belonged to economic dimension, 14 to social dimension, 8 to environmental dimensions and remaining are applied for physical dimension that the obtained results are summarized as below: At economic dimension districts 4, 1 and 2 with scores of 6.14, 5.46 and 4.95 scores obtained first, second and third scores of indicators and district 10 gained the lowest score.
Sustainable development is the dominant paradigm in the third millennium. This theory has been expanded in proposed period of time with a glance to environmental discussion and with the aim of preventing environmental deterioration and has been drawn to different discussions after passing a short time. Sustainable development encounters with inappropriate production, distribution and nature destructive pattern that its final purpose is to control environmental damages and increasing the quality of life. This study has been conducted with the aim of prioritizing sustainable development dimensions at the first stage and weighting civil districts based on the same dimensions. The results obtained from this study indicated that physical dimension is at the first priority among other dimensions.