رویکرد معیشت پایدار از رویکردهای جدید در توسعه پایدار روستایی است که برای کاهش فقر و توسعه روستاها مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. تأمین معیشت پایدار روستاییان در دنیای امروز از اولویتها میباشد که باید از انواع داراییها (طبیعی، انسانی، مالی، فیزیکی و اجتماعی) روستاییان برای بهبود و ارتقای معیشت آنها استفاده کرد. هدف کلی این پژوهش ارزیابی وضعیت معیشت جوامع روستایی شهرستان دره شهر با استفاده از رهیافت slf و الگوی cipp میباشد. اطلاعات جمعآوری شده از روستاهای این شهرستان در بین سه تیپ روستاهای برخوردار، نیمه برخوردار و کم برخوردار بر اساس چارچوب مفهومی تحقیق و با مقایسه متغیرهای معیشت انجام گردید. این تحقیق از نظر هدف کاربردی، به لحاظ روش پیمایشی- غیرآزمایشی میباشد که حجم کل جامعه آماری 16140 خانوار بوده و حجم نمونه مورد مطالعه با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 380 نفر در 16 روستای مورد مطالعه با استفاده از روش نمونهگیری طبقهای و با استفاده از انتصاب متناسب تعیین شد. بهمنظور جمعآوری اطلاعات از ابزار پرسشنامه محقق ساخت، مصاحبه و مشاهدات میدانی استفاده گردید. برای تحلیل دادهها از روشهای آماری توصیفی و استنباطی با بهرهمندی از نرمافزار spss بهره برده شد. نتایج به دست آمده نشان میدهد که بین روستاهای موردمطالعه از نظر برخورداری داراییهای معیشتی تفاوت معنیداری وجود دارد. همچنین آزمون فریدمن نشان میدهد که سهم داراییهای طبیعی در روستاهای مورد مطالعه بیشتر است و سهم داراییهای انسانی، اجتماعی، طبیعی، فیزیکی و مالی به ترتیب 39/3، 30/3، 59/3، 33/1، 39/3 میباشد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Analysis of five subsistence assets in rural communities (Case study: Dare Shahr villages)
Sustainable livelihood approach is one of the new approaches in sustainable rural development that has been considered to reduce poverty and rural development. This approach focuses on the diversity and increase of various rural activities and emphasizes the diversity and increase of various rural activities. Sustaining the sustainable livelihood of the villagers in today's world is one of the priorities that should use the various assets (natural, human, financial, physical and social) of the villagers to improve and enhance their livelihood. The general purpose of this study is to evaluate the living conditions of rural communities in Darrehshahr city using SLF approach and CIPP model. Took. The total size of the statistical population was 16.140 households and the sample size was determined using Cochran's formula of 380 people.To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used using SPSS software. The obtained results show that there is a significant difference between the studied villages in terms of livelihood assets. Friedman test also shows that the share of natural assets is higher in the studied villages and the share of human, social, natural, physical and financial assets is 3.39, 3.30, 3.59, 1.33, 3.39, respectively.
Data and Method
The present research is non-experimental in terms of application type, non-experimental in terms of data collection and survey type. The statistical population of the study includes 16140 rural households living in Darhshahr city, which has a population of about 58429. The sample size was obtained based on Cochran's formula of 380 households. The data collection tool in this study is a structured and researcher-made questionnaire. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. The collection tools in this research include library and field methods. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed using a panel of experts, and for the reliability of Cronbach's alpha used, its total value (0.73) was obtained. The independent variables of this research include five variables (human, physical, social, natural and financial) and the dependent variable is sustainable livelihood. The following hypotheses have been used in this study.
Results and Discussion
The results show that among 380 respondents, 60.86% were men and 90.12% were women, of which 2.14% were literate, 17.4% were middle school students, 9.33% were diploma students, and 6.6% were graduates. , 14.2% were associates and 6.6% were bachelors and above. Also, 3.70% were self-employed, 3.19% were government employees, 8.5% were retired, 1.8% were unemployed and 9.2% were students.
Regarding physical capital, the findings showed that the situation of marketing of agricultural products and products and the infrastructure of agricultural activities is very weak, while the main livelihood of the villages under study is provided by agriculture. .
Regarding the natural factors, the findings showed that the recent droughts have had the greatest impact on the living conditions of the studied villages, which is consistent with the results of Bazrafshan et al. 1397 and Darban Astana et al., 1397.
Regarding financial factors, the findings showed that fluctuations related to agricultural products have a great impact on people's lives. Also, the findings showed that investment to create employment by the government and the willingness of the private sector to invest in the villages studied is very low It is very high, which is consistent with the results of research by Weiss et al., 2017
. Regarding humanities, the findings showed that the level of access to educational services on livelihood and employment issues, unemployment rate at different ages and the status of courses and educational programs related to livelihood is very low. Which is in accordance with the results of Jamehpour and Ahmadi research, 2011. Also, the spirit of cooperation and cooperation and family relations among the residents of the studied villages is high in terms of livelihood activities, which is consistent with the results of Bazrafshan et al. 1397.
Regarding social factors, the findings showed that the tendency of villagers to urban life and the departure of labor and youth migration to urban areas is very high, which contradicts the results of research by Jomehpour and Ahmadi, 2011. Also, the level of use of media and social networks is very low.