عنوان مقاله [English]
Due to the need to provide housing in different countries, governments have taken comprehensive measures and planning to provide housing for different groups, especially the low-income classes. But the reality is that the methods of planning and intervention in housing production, land supply, and established urban standards have been inefficient and have not benefited the lowest-income groups. On the other hand, policies that emphasize the construction of housing for the low-income classes have paid little attention to its environmental effects. It is also important to note that the challenge of providing housing for low-income urban groups in developing countries is not limited to housing alone. Lack of living space and interior spaces of the house and inefficiency of heating and cooling facilities, insecurity against natural hazards, are among the most important issues that are not considered and studied when providing housing policies for these groups. To take. On the other hand, according to experts, housing programs for low-income groups have been the only housing for swollen housing wounds among these income groups; A large number of households in the conditions of homelessness, housing shortage and poor housing, show a lack of macro vision of this sector and the ineffectiveness of policies implemented in the housing sector and solving its problem in the country. For a variety of reasons, these policies have always faced serious challenges from the public and critics, as managers and planners in the field are now convinced that many policies and Investments in the housing sector may improve temporarily in this sector, but it will not be a way to achieve safe and sustainable conditions. What is needed is a rethinking of macro-management approaches and the use of new tools in planning, tools that make sense of the third wave of management (change to adapt to the future environment). In this regard, this study intends to identify and investigate the most important factors affecting the provision of adequate housing for low-income urban groups in the city of Tabriz.
Data and Method
The present study, with a futures research approach, identifies the most important factors affecting the housing of low-income groups in the city of Tabriz and examines the extent and how these factors affect. This research is applied in terms of purpose and according to the components under study, the approach is the descriptive-analytical method. Environmental and Delphi scanning techniques have been used to identify variables and indicators. In this regard, in the first stage, to collect variables from online articles, a review of published articles on the factors affecting the provision of housing for low-income groups was used; Then, a semi-structured questionnaire was distributed between experts in the field of urban issues and they were asked to score points in the matrix of intersecting effects on variables, based on effectiveness and influence with numbers in the range 0 to 3. In this rating, "zero" means no effect, "one" means weak effect, "two" means medium effect and "three" means high effect. The scores were then entered in a cross-matrix to measure the direct and indirect impact of each factor and to obtain key drivers according to the scores of the factors. In scenario-based studies, the expertise and knowledge of experts take precedence over the overall quantity and the sample size should not be less than 25 people. In this study, in order to consciously select the participants, purposive sampling method has been used. The basis for using purposive sampling method is to select a group of experts who have an in-depth study or general understanding of the nature of the research questionnaire. Based on the above explanations, the statistical population of this study is 50 experts in the field of urban issues, including experts of Tabriz metropolitan municipality, consulting engineers and some university professors specializing in the field of study.
Results and Discussion
Based on the rank obtained from key factors, 16 factors were identified as drivers in low-income housing planning in Tabriz. These drivers are in order of importance: per capita construction credits (government development credits in the housing sector), security against earthquakes and natural disasters, housing prices, the quality of urban space, the level of security against urban crime, how to access Educational centers, access to cultural and recreational centers, access to health centers, urban green space, quality of design and construction, access to public transportation, cost of urban infrastructure, access to water, electricity, gas, telephone, sewage, residential density and Construction cost.
Given the obtained key drivers, it can be acknowledged that success in achieving comprehensive goals in this field depends on continuous interaction between key factors and careful planning for these drivers. In other words, sufficient attention by planners and city managers to the influential factors and drivers and considering these key factors and the relationships between them will provide the necessary conditions for providing housing for low-income groups in the city of Tabriz.