نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 استادیار دانشکدة علوم جغرافیایی دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران
2 دانشجوی دوره کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Public health and sanitation as an important and vital issue has always been considered by academicians and urban planners and managers. It has led to adopt policies and actions by governments and related organizations. Though, creating healthy cities is a long-standing idea that has been around for decades, but in recent months, as the Covid 19 epidemic, which usually spreads faster in crowded cities, has plagued every country in the world, it has received more attention again. One of the concerns of city planners and managers in the current situation is how to protect the living environment and create resilient cities against such diseases. One of the approaches that has been proposed in order to enhance health in human habitats is healthy city idea. The purpose of this study is to analyze the status of healthy city indicators and the spatial distribution of these indicators in the new city of Sahand.
Data and Method
The study area of this research is the new city of Sahand, in the northwest of Iran, at a distance of 20 km from the city of Tabriz. The city has an area of 498 ha and a population of 80795 people. In the research, 38 indicators were selected as indicators of a healthy city and were classified into 4 dimensions. Part of the data was extracted from the GIS file of the 2016 Iranian Population and Housing Public Census and the other part was gathered through a survey using a questionnaire. Sample people including 378 household heads. The data was entered into the GIS to form a uniform shapefile. Then, by producing spatial distribution maps, spatial analysis was performed. Then, by transferring the data to SPSS software, a one-sample t-test was performed.
Results and Discussion
T-test results showed that the mean of the 38 indicators is 2.99, which is slightly lower than the assumed mean (3). Among the four dimensions of the indicators, the physical one shows a better situation the others, so that the figure is 3.69, which is 0.69 higher than the assumed mean. As the city has constructed in recent decades in accordance to a pre-designed plan, the indicators have shown a better situation in this regard. After the physical dimension, the environmental one shows a higher value than the assumed mean and it was 3.33.
In terms of environmental dimesion, relatively large distance from pollution resources, being enclosed in a valley and northwest winds, has removed air pollution from the city. The low density of cars on the roads has caused the residents to be satisfied with the lack of noise pollution. Connecting almost all the houses to the municipal sewage network, proper slope of lands, low density of population and the absence of worn buildings are some of the environmental advantages of the city. At the same time, poor waste management and non-observance of environmental cleanliness by citizens are low-scoring indicators in this dimension.
The values of socio-cultural and economic dimensions are lower than the assumed mean. Their values are 2.63 and 2.52 respectively. High value of the indicators of literacy, safety and security are the three indicators with higher values in this dimension. On the contrary, medical facilities, cultural services, leisure and sports facilities are indicators with a lower value in this dimension. In the economic dimension, except for employment, insurance coverage and job satisfaction, the other indicators show a very low value.
In terms of spatial distribution, the indicators of a healthy city in Phase 1 of the city has a better situation. In this Phase, the average valueof the indicators is 3.08. In Phase 2, in the southern parts, it has a higher value, but the in phase 2, it is slightly lower than the assumed mean (2.97). At most areas of the Phases of 3 and 4, where construction is still ongoing and service coverage, infrastructure and facilities are not completed, the value of indicators are low. In Phase 3, the average value of the indicators is 2.95 and in phase 4 it is 2.76.
Analyzing healthy city indicators indicated that Sahand represents a medium situation of a complete healthy city. In this city, for reasons that are mostly originated from national economy, there are many shortcomings in the economic indicators of a healthy city. However, due to the existence of a proper labor market near the city, unemployment rate is lower and insurance coverage is higher than most cities in Iran. But due to inflation, the incomes of the urban community, most of which are salaried, have not been able to provide them with the goods and services they need to live healthily. Due to the government's financial inability in recent years, it has not been made sufficient investment in urban services, facilities and infrastructure. The dormitory function of the city and the low financial capacity of its resident could not provide the municipality with the necessary financial resources to invest in developing urban facilities and infrastructures . In terms of spatial distribution, in the zones and phases where the construction was done earlier (Phases 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively), indicators values were higher than new constructed ones. In areas under construction or semi-residential, market conditions lead to less private sector activity.