این مطالعه با هدف شناسایی ابعاد و مولفههای توسعه مکملگرای گردشگری و بررسی نقش آن در توسعه منطقهای انجام گرفته است. برای این منظور، روش پژوهش، آمیخته اکتشافی و دارای دو مرحله متوالی کیفی و سپس کمی است. روش تحقیق این مطالعه به گونهای است که ابتدا در بخش کیفی از روش فراترکیب و تحلیل مضمون استفاده شد و الگوی تحقیق براساس آن طراحی گردید و سپس در بخش کمی با استفاده روش معادلات ساختاری به بررسی ساختاری مدل تحقیق، تعیین روایی و پایایی و ارتباط بین سازهها پرداخته شد. جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل مطالعات داخلی و خارجی مرتبط با موضوع تحقیق با تعداد نمونه 59 مطالعه و خبرگان دانشگاهی، اجرایی و مدیران کسب و کارهای گردشگری با تعداد نمونه 18 نفر در بخش کیفی و 110 نفر در بخش کمی میباشد. براساس نتایج تحقیق، براساس رویکرد کیفی، دو مفهوم فراگیر شامل دستاوردهای توسعه منطقهای و توسعه مکملگرای گردشگری با ابعاد مکملگرایی سیاستی، مکملگرایی همکارانه، مکملگرایی فرهنگی، مکملگرایی پویا، مکملگرایی فنی و مکملگرایی سایتهای گردشگری شناسایی شد. همچنین نتایج حاصل از معادلات ساختاری و با تاکید بر استان اردبیل به عنوان منطقه مورد مطالعه، نشان داد که توسعه مکملگرای گردشگری با ضریب مسیر 406/0 و معناداری 893/4 تاثیر مثبت و معناداری بر دستاوردهای توسعه منطقهای در استان اردبیل دارد. نتایج این تحقیق میتواند به توسعه ادبیات تحقیق در حوزه مکملگرایی در گردشگری و نیز بکارگیری گردشگری در دستیابی به دستاوردهای توسعه منطقهای کمک کند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Tourism complementarity development: a new approach to regional development
The concept of regional development with a holistic and comprehensive view and with an emphasis on a comprehensive and integrated process emphasizes the promotion of human and material capabilities to meet human needs, without reducing the capabilities of future generations. One of the areas in which it is possible to take advantage of regional capacities and capabilities for balanced, integrated and generally sustainable development is the tourism industry. Policymakers and planners try to take advantage of opportunities by providing and valuing tourist attractions at the regional level (Rosentraub & Joo, 2009). One of the strategies in the framework of regional development is complementarity, which is defined in the sense of geographical concentration of businesses related to an industry and having special internal relationships (Cruz & Teixeira, 2010). Strengthening a complementarity regional view of tourism can improve regional competitiveness and the synergistic and efficient use of resources. However, research in the literature generally considers different ways of affecting a phenomenon separately. However, the interdependence between different approaches to success in different contexts is largely ignored (Al-Sheyadi et al, 2019; Claver et al, 2007). Therefore, according to the issues raised, this study tries to identify the dimensions and components of complementarity tourism development and examine its role in regional development.
Data and Method
The present research is a mixed research and in terms of purpose, the present research is an applied research and in terms of nature and method in the qualitative part is exploratory and in the quantitative part is descriptive-survey. The research process is such that first by using meta-combination and interviewing experts, the dimensions and components of complementarity tourism development and regional development achievements were identified and then in a quantitative part using structural equations to validate the model and examine the relationship. Among the concepts with emphasis on Ardabil province is discussed. The tools used to collect data are interviews, archival documents and questionnaires. The statistical population of this research includes internal and external articles related to the subject of research (in the meta-combination section) and academic experts, managers of government organizations and tourism businesses in Ardabil province (in the interview section and quantitative section). The sample size includes 59 internal and external studies, 18 experts are available for targeted interviews and 110 experts are available for quantitative section using sampling method. Finally, for data analysis in the qualitative part, meta-combination with qualitative content analysis technique, content analysis (interview part) and in a small part of structural equations with SMART-PLS software for data analysis have been used.
Results and Discussion
The results indicate the existence of two pervasive themes. The first comprehensive theme is complementarity tourism development, which has 6 themes of tourism policy complementarity (including themes of sub-organizer of adaptation, interaction network and structural integration), cooperative complementarity of tourism (with sub-organizers of relations promotion, partnership cooperation and stakeholder conflict management). ), Tourism technical complementarity (with the themes of resource flexibility, process monitoring and product effectiveness), dynamic tourism complementarity (with the themes of knowledge network, innovation, development of complementarity capabilities, education and learning and technological complementarity), complement Cultural orientation of tourism (with the themes of promoting social resources and social capital) and complementarity of tourism sites. The second comprehensive theme is regional development achievements, which has 6 basic themes including balance in regional development, regional competitiveness, diversification of economic activities, regional branding, quality improvement and life satisfaction and regional sustainability. Based on the findings of structural equations, complementarity tourism development with a path coefficient of 0.406 and a t-value of 4.893 has a positive and significant effect on regional development achievements in Ardabil province.
The development of new opportunities in the tourism industry is an integrated process of physical space and human society, the new forms of which are the result of changes in values and attitudes of human life, advanced technology, information growth and political forces. Tourism research on the region as a Important driving force is focused on connecting different parts of the industry and the possibility of creating destination networks. The concept of complementarity development is in line with the regional view of development, which tries to use all the elements and factors that exist at the regional level and can affect the development of the region, and contribute to the integrated and balanced development of the region. Complementarity tourism development seeks to use the region's tourism potential to reduce inequality and promote the economic and non-economic benefits of tourism at the regional level. Complementarity approach in development and tourism is one of the new approaches of regionalism that very limited studies have been done in this field. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the dimensions and components of complementarity tourism development and regional development achievements. Through a combination of previous studies in the field of complementarity and regional development and analysis of experts' views, it was found that the dimensions of tourism complementarity development include policy complementarity, collaborative complementarity, technical complementarity, cultural complementarity, dynamic complementarity and tourism sites complementarity. On the other hand, the results of meta-composition and content analysis showed that the achievements of development in a region by reducing inequality and creating balance, diversifying economic activities, competitiveness of regions, improving the living conditions of the region and ... Is specified. Development can be done effectively in the region and create tangible effects for the region and its inhabitants that bring long-term and sustainable achievements in the region. After identifying the dimensions and components of complementarity tourism development and regional development achievements, in the next stage, the resulting model in Ardabil province was examined. According to the findings, complementarity tourism development in Ardabil province has a positive and significant effect on regional development achievements. In such a way that the development of tourism complementarity can create sustainable effects in the region and the residents of the region can benefit from these effects. Complementarity tourism development causes the region as an integrated complex with cohesive and interconnected components in which tourism components, in addition to their activities, also interact with other tourism sectors and create synergistic effects.