عنوان مقاله [English]
Perhaps housing can also Introduced as the main factor and objective of shaping skeleton and structure of the city, because firstly whatever of cities explicitly at citizenry possession, are homes and housing; secondary, home is a space for birth and growth and maturation of man at individual or among the family situation; Third, home is a place of activity establishment and growth of family which that is the smallest social unit; Fourth, housing is the main and the most basic factor of identity of man and society and the basis of unification or vice versa Scattering of them (Naghizadeh, 2013).
Affordable Housing, is a housing that its features based on the cultural values and their regeneration and promotion in the society and toward the obliteration of self- alienation and return to itself; and cultural activities and the introduction of national identity and searching the special methods in format of qualitative policies and executive policies in it is necessary (Naghizadeh, 2012). Codification of housing basics by using the foundations of Iranian- Islamic architecture of the past decades and Islam monotheism worldview principles and also requirement of pay attention to improving the quality of housing and transformation in methods of construction of buildings is inevitable (Naghizadeh & Asadzadeh Birjandi, 2013). Consideration to muslim housing in Islam is knot with insight to divine verses and this matter sacredness of the human living place. Sacredness that explain the
unique features of good home and at muslim human dignity; that pay attention to each of them provide human heavenly and earthly bliss (Hoseini & Samimi, 2015).
City housing and residential context are as the main manifestation of appearance of Islamic values (because of filling major section of the city area) can be in the both of old and organic urban fabrics, that based on their period native and cultural conditions, and evolved over time and remained up to now and investigated and evaluated in new fabric of cities, which forms based on urbanism methods and new patterns. This research, look for two main objectives, firstly, analysis and assessment of the housing current status of old and new neighborhoods in Urmia city based on Islamic housing indicators, secondary, analysis and assessment of Iranian- Islamic indicators status of old and new neighborhoods of Urmia city, so that this way able to achieve the strengths and weaknesses of observe of Iranian-Islamic indicators with the matching of results.
Data and Method
Islamic housing indicators classify in two categories of quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative indicators include: housing area, housing facades, housing quality, housing resistance and safety, housing orientation to the qibla, existence of green spaces in the neighborhood and qualitative indicators include: the use of natural light, comfort in housing, housing relation with nature, non- overlooking into housing, accessibility to housing. In the first stage, quantitative indicators were extracted through the library studies and in the next step housing quality indicators was evaluated through questionnaires. For this work, 330 number of questionnaires through Cochran formula was obtained that among residents of the studied neighborhoods were collected. Also, for weighting the Islamic housing indicators, 30 numbers of expert questionnaires were set, which 15 numbers of questionnaires were polled by experts of seminary courses and 15 numbers of questionnaires were polled by academic experts related to housing. AHP model also has been used for weighting the intended indicators by expert questionnaire. To analysis and assessment of the studied neighborhoods situation with the Islamic housing indicators and also for assessment of Islamic- Iranian housing indicators in the studied neighborhoods, TOPSIS method was used. After initial analysis and assessment of condition by using the output of TOPSIS, was proceed to the pathology and identify weaknesses of indicators, which finally was leaded to present solutions in order to reduce the problems related to having Iranian- Islamic indicators in the studied
Results and Discussion
According to TOPSIS method results, Behdari neighborhood as one of the new neighborhoods of the Urmia city, with consideration of Iranian- Islamic indicators toward the Mahdi- al- qadam neighborhood, which that is one of the old neighborhoods of the Urmia city, is more favorable. With the return to the indicators, respectively determine that, resistance and safety, housing area, comfort in housing and overlooking have the greatest impact in undesirable position of Mahdi- al- qadam. In other words, having weakness of mentioned indicators in the Mahdi- al- qadam neighborhood has caused that this neighborhood toward the Behdari neighborhood placed in a lower position. Therefore, in planning for the Mahdi- al- qadam neighborhood its necessary that solutions be explained to improvement of indicator status. Also, according to the results presented in table number 3 that shows the ranking of indicators in neighborhoods, resistance and safety indicator has been ranked first. Comparison between situation of the Mahdi- al- qadam neighborhood and resistance and safety indicator shows having major weakness of mentioned indicator in Mahdi- al- qadam neighborhood.
Conducted analyzes in this research showed that among the chosen indicators, overlooking indicator as the factor that covering visibility and Create privacy lies in itself, also it is important from the point of view of the Seminaries and academic experts, but unfortunately this indicator is among the weakest indicators in Mahdi- al- qadam and Behdari neighborhoods and needs more attention. In both neighborhoods, interesting point is located the resistance and safety indicator in the highest position among the other indicators, that shows favorable situation of this indicator among the other indicators. Also, the results of comparing two neighborhoods represents this point that Behdari neighborhood, with consideration of all Iranian- Islamic indicators, is in a more favorable situation toward the Mahdi- al- qadam neighborhood.