عنوان مقاله [English]
Tourism today is one of the most important and effective economic issues and of the important factors of Outstanding communication, social and cultural in the worldwide is considered. In fact, the expansion of the economic, health, security and communication infrastructure in the twenty-first century has made tourism an inevitable reality in human life (Saghaei and Alizadeh, 2013: 2). Hence, tourism is one of the key industries in any society that can attract planners attention, Because it affects many sectors of society, including the economic, cultural and environmental sectors. On the other, The large volume of travel in recent years has made tourism one of the largest industries in the world (Kazemi et al, 2012: 48), So that the income of tourism and tourist With transportation of passengers in about 17 percent of total world exports make up. Given the growing importance of tourism in today's world and the competitiveness of the tourism market around the world, Tourist destinations are increasingly competing with each other to attract tourists. The expansion of the tourism industry in every part of the world requires special conditions and conditions such as climate, ancient artifacts, natural attractions, traditions, infrastructure, facilities and equipment (Pourahmad et al, 2013: 2). So each of the tourist destinations should try to increase their share of the industry and its revenues. On the other hand, On the other hand, Should be noted in today's competitive world, The first trip to a tourist destination It does not mean the success of tourism destination, It is also a repetition of the trip to the tourist destinations and the introduction and promotion of it for potential tourists, which can serve the purpose of tourism in the long run. Hence, loyalty to the destination of tourism and its influential factors play a significant role in their long-term success. Therefore, efforts should be Loyalty to the destination of tourism and the factors that create this loyalty are identified and strengthened. Given the importance of brand loyalty to tourism destinations, The present study aims to investigate the factors affecting the loyalty of tourists to the tourism destination of Tabriz.
Emission reduction of carbon dioxide and its impact on global warming process is one of the most important results in the use of renewable energy sources. In urban areas, solar systems stationed on building roofs are the most appropriate utilization method of stable source of solar energy. Urban compactness is a major urban form parameter that affects the accessibility of solar renewable energy in the built environment, so it is essential that the effects of urban compactness on buildings utilization of solar energy, be surveyed. The aim of this study is the evaluation of solar energy potential in urban areas and determination of the relation between urban compactness indicators and solar energy potential in the local scale. In this study, the annual solar radiation modeling for each of the building surfaces of the study area, over one year period, was performed using the Solar Analyst model. On the other hand, the relation between various compactness indicators including site coverage, plot ratio, volume-area ratio, Entropy, population density and building density with Annual solar radiation received by the study area was explored and using least squares regression model, the relationship between the solar radiation and urban compactness indicators was determined. Also potential of using two types of active solar systems including Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems (PV) and Solar Thermal Collectors (STC) was evaluated. According to the results, the annual solar irradiation increase from 507 (in compression areas) to 741 (in scattered areas) Kilowatt hours per square meter. Volume-area ratio shows the highest determination coefficient, R2 equal to 0/805 with annual solar radiation. Also in the study area, the building roofs potential for the development of PV systems much more than STC systems, influenced by the degree of urban compactness.