عنوان مقاله [English]
Rural tourism is one of the suitable alternatives to implement the requirements of sustainable development, environmental sustainability, community and economy of rural areas, job creation, public and private investment, improvement of infrastructure, and economic benefits in rural areas. Rural tourism activities are small businesses that can respond quickly to new needs and markets, which is itself an introduction to a diversity of novelties. Various thinkers advocate entrepreneurship as an elixir for many social and environmental worries. In rural areas, factors such as the development of human driving force, the quality of the workforce, increasing the quality of management, development of education and technology are effective in tourism entrepreneurship. Consequently, entrepreneurship in the field of tourism and the use of natural and synthetic capacities depend on the availability of human drivers. The townships of Filestān village in Pakdasht city have many agricultural, historical and natural attractions, also are considered the most important centers of rural tourism, desert ecotourism, mountain eco-tourism, and flower tourism (tourism based on the cultivation of flowers and ornamental plants). Therefore, regarding the mentioned capacities and potentials, the study area can create jobs and develop entrepreneurship in the field of tourism, directly and indirectly. Therefore, entrepreneurship in the field of sustainable rural tourism can be considered as a corridor to attain sustainable development in the villages of the region. Due to the development of tourism in this region and the increasing number of visitors to this village, this study tries to study the human drivers of tourism entrepreneurship and its impact on sustainable rural development in the study area.
Data and Method
The current study is Practical due to the nature of the subject. The information required for the research was obtained using field and library methods. The statistical population of the study was non-native tourists who visited the villages of Filestān rural district in spring and autumn of 2019. Since the total size of the statistical population was unknown and the variance of the statistical population was unknown, the statistical population of this study was determined to be 170 non-native tourists. The questionnaire was provided to tourists as a research tool in the form of convenience sampling. The validity of the questionnaires was confirmed according to the expert professors of geography and rural planning. Its reliability was obtained by Cronbach's alpha method and data analysis was performed using SPSS software and ARAS, WASPAS, and CODAS techniques.
Results and Discussion
After determining the research criteria via library studies, a questionnaire was prepared based on these criteria, and validation and reliability were provided to the statistical community. In the first step, regarding the growth of entrepreneurship in the field of rural tourism in the region and the high importance of the issue from the point of view of local people and officials, the WASPAS technique has been used to achieve more accurate results and to rank villages in terms of human propulsion. The results of the WASPAS technique reveal that different dimensions of human propulsion in Golzar village (in this village, Qi is equal to 0.1121) had the greatest impact on the process of entrepreneurship development in the field of rural tourism among the villages of this village. In the second step; regarding the effects of entrepreneurship on the development of sustainable rural tourism in Filestān rural area and the sensitivity of the issue in terms of environmental protection and rich culture and local identity of rural people, in this study, the CODAS technique is used to achieve more accurate results and to rank villages. Based on the CODAS technique, it shows that the effects of entrepreneurship on the development of sustainable rural tourism in Golzar and Filestān villages have been more than other villages in Filestān rural area. In the last stage, using the ARAS technique, the degree of sustainability of villages in the Filestān rural area has been studied and measured in environmental, physical, economic, social, and institutional dimensions. According to Ki, Golzar and Filestān villages are the first ranks among the other villages in Filestān rural district in terms of sustainability. The results of the ARAS model (ranking of villages in terms of sustainability) and CODAS model (effects of entrepreneurship on sustainable rural tourism development) and WASPAS technique (status of human drivers of sustainable rural tourism entrepreneurship development) are completely consistent. Golzar village is in the first place in terms of sustainability indicators, entrepreneurship effects, and the status of human drivers of entrepreneurship development.
Entrepreneurship growth in rural areas can be considered as a policy based on geographical reconstruction in rural areas, which can lead to a new spatial division of labor, energy, and resources, and ultimately, lead to a change in the quality of life of rural people according to sustainable development theory. In which different dimensions of entrepreneurship development and existing perspectives appear as the main components and ultimately create a combined approach to entrepreneurship development in rural areas. Entrepreneurship growth in Golzar village as an important strategy in rural development has been able to reduce the use of natural resources due to the expansion of modern greenhouses and hydroponic cultivation, minimizing the loss of resources by modern irrigation technologies, maintaining environmental quality, and biodiversity conservation. At the level of Golzar and Filestān villages, tourism and entrepreneurship in this field, in addition to generating income from new sources, has increased villagers' self-confidence, participation, and social cohesion and foresight, as well as achieving sustainable tourism development by gaining access to modern technologies, increasing income and capital, accessing more appropriate physical infrastructure and utilizing more knowledge and skills. According to the familiarity gained from the rural community under study, in the process of strengthening entrepreneurship in the field of sustainable rural tourism, human resource and sociological variables, especially motivational factors, play a key role. Because no development can happen without the participation, social cohesion and discipline, social security, and self-confidence of rural stakeholders and local communities.